It is estimated that only 5,000 of Amsterdam's 100,000 Jews survived World War II. The efficiency of the Dutch bureaucratic machine made it easy to find them.

The first Jews to arrive in Amsterdam came from Portugal and Spain from the early 1600s onwards. Even though they were allowed to settle in the city, they could not enter most professions and had to bury their dead outside the city walls. The Beth Haim graveyard in Oudkerk aan de Amstel is full of atmosphere - Spinoza's parents are buried there.

Wikipedia has a list of famous Dutch Jews.

For information about Jewish genealogy in the Netherlands

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